Borsch — a vegetable dish with meat or mushrooms , a traditional dish of Eastern Slavs . The most popular dish on the Ukrainian table . The constituent of red borsch is table beet . The composition of Ukrainian and Kiev borsch includes 20 items of products, Poltava and Green — up to 18, Chernihiv — 16, etc.  The most common of this traditional dish in Ukraine is Ukrainian, lean with mushrooms and beans , spring cold. Prepare borsch with meat, mushrooms, sausage , adding sour cream . A spicy borsch with mushrooms is filled with oilwith garlic , and to the borsch pampers , watered with garlic oil, or pies with meat and cabbage.
Distribution and origin of borsch
There is the notion of the so-called borscht belt , which extends from southeastern Poland through Ukraine, Belarus to the Volga and Don region . However, borscht is common in other countries, for example in Turkey ( tour borç ).
Origin of borsch — Ukrainian [ source? ] , they began to cook in the late Middle Ages . Borsch could get into the kitchens of neighboring countries through cultural borrowings.
Types of borsch
There are many regional varieties of borsch. For example, the traditional for the city is borsch without cabbage, for Kiev — with lamb and beef , Poltava — on a goose broth , and in borsch in Kharkov add beer .
Depending on the preparation and consumption of borscht you can be divided into:
- Hot — this kind of borsch is the most widespread in the kitchen of different peoples.
- Red is the most popular borsch in Ukraine.
- Green, oxalic or spring are cooked from a young sorrel .
- Cold cooked exclusively in the summer.
During the fasting borsch boil in oil , with mushrooms , somewhere with fish . In Ukraine, for Christmas, traditionally cook mushroom soup with ears . Sour cream and fresh, usually rye bread or donuts are served to the borsch .
Red is the most popular borsch in Ukraine, it is made from cabbage , potatoes (from the second half of the 19th century ), carrots , onions , parsley , dill, and necessarily add beets , due to it borsch is painted in dark red ( beet ) color. Red borsch usually bake on meat-and-bone grass , although historically it was a simple food for peasants and meat was placed only on holidays, on an everyday basis — tucked or baked with lard with garlic and onion. Let the bacon bean kvass from table beet, citric acid, vinegar , fresh tomatoes or pasta from them. Also, red borsch sometimes prepare with fish.
golds borscht usually dye red bean gardens (both root crops and kvass from it). For the acid, also add kvas-cheese , whey or butter or kvass from sugar beets, and when served on a table in especially solemn days, fry with sour cream. Sharp adds flavor soup red pepper , is especially prevalent in southern Ukraine.
Borsch cooked with beans ( Middle Dnieper , Poltava , Podillya ), add to it a slightly fried flour ( rub borsch ), millet or buckwheat ( South of Ukraine ), and in Poltava region often dumplings . In Podillia, for the sourdough of borsch, prepare a special kvass of steamed rye bran — grize . In the extreme west of Ukraine, borsch is cooked very rarely, only with beets (without cabbage and potatoes), refueling with sunflower, and for juicy sour taste, add juice of fresh cherries or apples. In the fasting borsch cooked without fat and meat, only on the butter, but add to the vegetable soup mushrooms, dried, dried or fresh fried fish. In Poltava region red borsch with fish is served cold.
Red borscht is widely used not only as a daily dinner, but also for Christmas , Hungry Kutya , wedding , baptism , prayers . In most of Ukraine, a hot borsch began a ritual dinner, and in Polissya and Volhynia borshch often ended the ritual meal: «Borsch and porridge — the last pasha».
An old-time Ukrainian cuisine is a grocer .
In red borscht for leaven today use fresh tomatoes, tomato juice, sauce or pasta. Widespread, these supplements displaced beetroot kvass in the 1930s . Then in the south began to add sweet bell peppers , rotunda .
Green, oxalic or spring prepared from young sorrel or nettle , potato and also add chopped boiled egg and sour cream . Previously, they were also cooked from nettle or loboda , or young leaves of beets , tarting a soup boiled egg and sour cream or serum, or butter. As well as red, oxalic borsch in fasting is prepared without fat and meat, on oil, with mushrooms and fish. Shchelevi borscht has survived as a dish to our day almost unchanged.
Cold borsch or hollow were cooked exclusively in the summer. Only boiled beets and potatoes, all the other ingredients were put in raw. Young garden beets are cooked, cut into straws, dressed with kvass — syrup, serum or butter, or sour cream. Add fresh herbs of parsley, dill, onion, garlic, whenever possible, boiled eggs. This is raw borsch because boiled only beets. Eat chilled, often with boiled potatoes instead of bread. In the modern kitchen, there are many different recipes for cold drinks.
Basics of borsch cooking
An unchanging component of borsch is beets. It gives the food a basic taste and color.
As a rule, borscht is cooked on meat, bone or mixed meat-bone broth. Properly prepared broth — the basis of a good borsch. The broth for borsch is usually cooked from the breast, less often from thin and thick edges or curls. Bones are always crushed in advance, and the cartilage parts are cut. Duration of cooking of bones is 4-6 hours, meat — 2-2,5 hours. After the water boils, the broth continues to cook on low heat. When cooking the meat-bone broth, first bake the bones, and then, two hours before the end of their cooking, lay the meat and boil until ready, after which the meat is taken out of the broth and begin to cook on the broth the vegetable part of the borsch, where again lay meat only in 10-15 minutes. to full borsch ready. By the end of cooking in borsch should be no more than 1,
A few words about the ratio of meat to borsch. Beef and pork are usually laid in a ratio of 2: 1 or 1: 1. In addition, after the cooking of the main broth in some types of soup, sometimes small amounts of lamb, ham, sausages, homemade sausages in finely chopped form are added at a rate of 1: 4 in relation to the main meat of borsch. Borsch can also be made on a goose or chicken broth (Poltava and Odessa). In this case, the addition of other meat is excluded.
The peculiarity of the preparation of the vegetable part of the borsch is the preliminary separate processing. Beetroot, for example, always smokes separately from other vegetables. Pre-sprayed with vinegar (or add citric acid, lemon juice), which is necessary to preserve the red color, put in warmed fat (fat, oil) and stew until ready. Sometimes the beets are baked or boiled until they are semi-ready in the rind and only then they are cleaned, cut and dipped into broth.
Finely chopped onion, carrots and strawped carrots and parsley parsley together for 15 minutes, while the vegetables should be covered with fat. Before the end of sauce, add tomato puree or finely chopped tomatoes to the vegetables and continue to satiate until the fat stains in the color of the tomatoes.
It is very important to consistently place vegetables in broth — in strict accordance with the duration of cooking them. Potatoes are laid in 30 minutes. until ready for borsch, cabbage — for 20 minutes, beets in the prepared stew — for 15 minutes, sautéed vegetables (onion, carrots, parsley) — for 15 minutes, spices — for 5-8 minutes, garlic (separately from the remaining spices) — for 2 min.
The main type of fat used for borsch is pork fat. It will be stuffed or rubbed in a mortar with garlic, onion and parsley till the formation of a smooth mass and fill it with borshch in 2-3 minutes. to readiness. Most borschs to give them a kind of sour taste are cooked not only on water, but on kvass — cheese, on the juice of lean beet and on beet juice (fats), adding them mainly after cooking meat in the finished broth, trying not to expose to prolonged boiling .
The fryer is prepared on roasted lard or lard and only in their absence — on oil or other fat. The tortoise includes carrots, onions, crushed or grated tomatoes, or tomato juice or paste. However, borscht on tomatoes is always tastier than cooked on tomatoes. In traditional, classic Ukrainian borsch the spices are generally not welcome. However, the parsley or dill is added almost always. Spices use black pepper and, sometimes, bay leaf.
An interesting taste is the so-called «pounded borsch». Pour the old (most old!) Fat or rub in the mortar with garlic, onion and parsley till the formation of a smooth mass and fill it with borshch in 2-3 minutes. to readiness. But in this case, the fat should aging not in the refrigerator, but in a wooden box, sprinkled with chips or a large sawdust. Then the fat will become old like daisy and will be extremely tasty and breathable.
Once cooked, the soup is placed on a very weak fire of a gas cooker or simply shifted to the edge of a regular slab so that it does not cool very well, and let it stand for another 20 minutes, after which it is served to the table. Thus, preparation of borscht takes a minimum of 3 hours, while cooking on a bone broth — even 5-6 hours.